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IMPORTANT: There are TWO reading texts in this end of lesson review.
Reading Passage 1 of 2
Read the passage and answer the following matching questions. Type the correct answers in the spaces provided.
Gap Year Ideas
A. A growing number of students are electing to take a ‘gap year’, a year off to travel before going to university, sometimes even mid-way between studies or after graduation and prior to joining the workforce. This trend, according to Careers Advice Counsellor Scott Bradley, is motivated by the urge to experience different cultures first-hand. Companies specialising in gap year organisation often offer subsidies for accommodation and other expenses, making this a financially viable option for those who set their hearts on it and are willing to work to amass the remainder of the expenses involved.
B.The majority of gap year programmes organised in such a way involve working in regions requiring external assistance with their development; Melissa Hedges, Director of GYOME (Gap Year Organisation Made Easy) says work placements may involve teaching English to local children, farm work or infrastructure development projects. Since participants in the programmes are helping to bring genuine benefit to impoverished areas, such an experience can be not only personally rewarding, but helpful with future employment searches, employers often holding the view that travel and in particular voluntary work overseas help to develop maturity, independence and team-building skills in potential graduate employees. Employment Agency Consultant Lucy Clarke says such experience can add tremendous value to applicants’ resumes and positively impact on their success at reaching interview stage. She adds that it is helpful for students to plan a gap year placement which will involve functions and responsibilities somehow related to their chosen future career if at all possible, though Scott Bradley warns that some students from some particular study disciplines may find that their own industry is less receptive to the advantages of a gap year than others. For example, graduates of a technology-related degree could find themselves at a disadvantage on their return as knowledge and applications within the industry are so dynamic.
C.Since gap year placements are often in developing areas traditionally unused to regular intrusions from outside, it is important that visitors endeavour to follow an ethical code of conduct and act responsibly. The idea, after all, is to add value to the new environment and the lives of people living in that area and not to in any way damage systems and standards already in place. Sociology graduate Katrina Watkins, who has recently completed a gap year assignment, advises that responses to begging need to be carefully considered. She believes that in the developing world a few coins casually discarded can amount to a significant sum of money in the local currency. “While over the short term currency earned from or given by visitors to locals is no doubt beneficial on an individual level, the long term effects on the society as a whole can also be damaging, if for example, children are encouraged to stay away from school and are dissuaded from gaining an education because time spent generating money from tourists is considered more lucrative” she added. Steven Davison, a second gap year veteran, suggests alternative approaches to helping the local community could be to make a donation via a local charity, participate in a community assistance programme or volunteer at a local orphanage; his belief being that any of these options are far more beneficial and productive over the long term.
D.Katrina Watkins strongly recommends that it is useful to research the culture of the destination country as much as possible before arrival. Adding that knowledge of a few phrases and words is extremely useful and inevitably well received by the locals, Davison agrees and says it is important for participants to be reminded that an understanding of the dress code and any social taboos is vital to help new arrivals avoid causing offence. It can be extremely offensive in some areas to display shoulders or wear short trousers and certain gestures or body language may have a totally different interpretation. Cultural Researcher Thomas Rogers, says it is also important to be aware of the rules of photography as for some societies, particularly tribal societies, the camera can be an intimidating tool which can cause great distress if photographs are taken without permission.
E.In the same way, whilst respecting the culture of our destination it is equally important to respect the new environment we find ourselves in. It is highly likely that power and water supplies will be far less abundant than at home. Environmentalist Dr Stuart Bromley holds that travellers should be sure to carry bio-degradable soaps and washing powders, avoid using such products in streams and in lakes and keep water usage to a minimum by refraining from leaving taps running and suchlike. Wherever we are in the world it is important to never litter and dispose of rubbish responsibly; in particular, non-degradable packaging such as bottles, cans and plastic should be kept to a minimum and never discarded in areas where animals may gain access and damage themselves as a result.
F.Melissa Hedges says that protection of the environment and the indigenous culture when travelling is of paramount importance; all of her recruits are required to attend an intensive Orientation and Advice workshop prior to embarking on their adventure. Bromley believes that visitors who behave responsibly and with caution, particularly those intending to participate in some work project or other can benefit their destination and its population enormously. Before embarking on a gap year, according to Steven Davison, it is advisable for participants to research ethical holiday providers, work placement schemes and ecotourism information sites in order to ensure that the largest contribution to the area can be made and that the trip can be as enjoyable and safe as possible.
Look at the following list of statements (questions 1-6) based on ‘Gap Year ideas’
Match the statement with the correct person A-E.
Write the correct letters A-E in boxes 1-6 of your answer sheet
NB You may use any letter more than once.
A. Dr Stuart Bromley
B. Steven Davison
C. Lucy Clarke
D. Katrina Watkins
E. Scott Bradley
1. Certain practices do not offer long term benefits to people in developing countries.
2. Planning which organisation to use is important.
3. Plan what to take to minimise personal impact on the environment while travelling.
4. Gap year programmes should be relevant to future areas of employment.
5. Learning the basics of the host country’s language can be an advantage.
6. People take gap years to see other cultures for themselves.
Reading Passage 2 of 2
Read the passage and answer the following classifying questions. Type the correct answers in the spaces provided.
The populating of England
A. The United Kingdom, and its cities in particular, represent a cosmopolitan mix of ethnicities and nationalities. Its multicultural characteristics have developed extensively over recent time as a result of international connections, such as those developed during the time of the British Empire and the European Union; however, the UK has had a mixture of cultures and nationalities since its early beginnings.
B.To compress thousands of years of history in a few paragraphs is a difficult task, and as with almost any historical point a millennia old, even ‘facts’ are disputable. What is generally accepted is that the first notable new arrivals to Britain came over 2000 years ago in the form of an army of Romans. Conflicts ensued with the tribal populations of Britain, but the organised martial might of the Romans proved superior, and for the following century, Roman influence spread throughout what is now known as England. Yet this was not a true invasion, as it was not until nearly 100 years later that Rome decided it wanted Britain to be part of the Roman Empire. Consequently, in 43 A.D., the first full scale invasion took place in the South East of England. Some thirty years later, Roman control had spread throughout England and Wales, although Scotland had remained defiant. Frequent incursions into England from tribes in Scotland led to the creation of one of Britain’s most impressive constructions – Hadrian’s Wall. The wall was built right across the border of Scotland and designed to protect ‘Brittania’, the Roman name given to England and Wales. Yet for 300 years, invasions from the Picts and the Scots (both tribes from Scotland) continued to harass the Romans. By 400 A.D., with the Roman Empire collapsing due to rebellions in Europe, the Roman army in Britannia was seriously weakened. Invasions by the Picts and Scots pressed deeper into what was Roman control, and new invaders arrived – the Saxons from modern-day Germany.
C.With no support from the Empire and new invaders to fight, the country soon fell into civil war, a situation exacerbated by a ravaging plague. Saxon influence in South West England soon became apparent, with those opposing them either being defeated or fleeing to France. The Angles, also from Germany, added their forces to those of the Saxons, and the Anglo-Saxon alliance proved extremely powerful, soon taking over most of South West England. But the series of invasions was not over yet, as the Visigoths arrived on the shores of Britain. Having failed to conquer Rome, the Visigoths had headed north and marched into Britain, overwhelming the Britons (the name taken by a combination of Roman invaders and original settlers).
D.The fighting continued, although to a lesser extent, between the Visigoths and the Anglo-Saxons, but in 793 Britain was once again being invaded, this time by the Vikings. Coming from Denmark, the Vikings were a fierce tribe that swept across the east of England, creating what was called the ‘Danelaw’, an area running from the south east to the north west of England which was under Viking influence. Anglo-Saxon and Viking culture mixed, creating a new, ‘British’ culture, and adding to the vocabulary of the language, a legacy of the Roman occupation. In 1066, another invasion and subsequent population by the Normans brought a new culture to the mix, adding the French component of culture and language that is easily identifiable in modern English. The Dark Ages were then replaced by the Middle Ages, and while this did not mean an end to war, it did signal the beginning of a unified country. From this point on, historians refer to international wars between England and France, England and Spain, even England and Wales, but the creation of England, the mix of over one thousand years of different culture and language, was finally formalised.
Questions 7 – 11
According to the information in the second passage, classify the following event as occurring
A. prior to 400 A.D.
B. 400 to 1066
C. 1066 onwards
Write the correct letters A-C in boxes 7-11 of your answer sheet
7. Invasion by two German groups
8. First indications of unity in Britain seen
9. Collapse of the Roman Empire
10. Visigoths invaded Britain after lack of success in the south
11. English as used to day first became identifiable