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INSTRUCTIONS: Match a heading to each of the paragraphs. Type your answers in the spaces provided.
Questions 1 -4
The reading passage has five paragraphs A – E.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-B and D-E from the list of headings below.
- Past significance
- Advantages for contemporary life
- Global presence
- Motivation for garden based production
- Future expectations
- Characteristics and regulation
- Differing patterns of use
- Factors behind the decline
Q1 Paragraph A
Q2 Paragraph B
Example Paragraph C Answer IV
Q3 Paragraph D
Q4 Paragraph E
A. The presence of allotment gardens can be observed, predominantly in urban areas, in numerous countries around the world including Germany, Sweden, the Philippines and the UK. Allotment garden areas are comprised of individual allocations of land, typically varying between 200 and 400m2, which are assigned to different tenants from the local community. Allotment tenants pay a nominal annual fee to the allotment association in exchange for the right to garden in their allocated area, the growing of vegetables, fruit or flowers is allowable and plots often include a garden shed for the keeping of equipment though must not be used for residential purposes.
B. A Luxembourg-based organization, the Office International du Coin de Terre et des Jardins Familiaux, responsible for representing over 3 million European allotment gardeners since 1926, holds that traditionally, availability of allotment gardens have presented a number of socio-cultural and economic benefits for the local community. Historically, emphasis on the benefits of allotment gardening were linked to availability of fresh fruit and vegetables for the family. In the UK in the 19th and early 20th century, much of the fresh vegetables eaten by the poor were only available thanks to the allotment gardening system.
C. In Germany, availability of food derived from allotment gardens became particularly crucial during World Wars I and II. The socio-economic situation was dire, many cities were isolated from rural areas and often the only agricultural products to reach the city were sold at extortionate rates on the black market. As a result, self-sufficient food production within the city, in the form of fruit and vegetable production in home and allotment gardens, became essential for survival.
D. Today in Germany, allotment-keeping has retained its popularity, there still being around 1.4 million allotment gardens covering an area of 47,000 ha; conversely, in the UK, the practice of allotment keeping has gone into massive decline. By the late 1990’s the number of plots in the latter country had fallen to around 265,000, from 1,500,000 in 1918, undoubtedly increase in wealth, feelings of security and changes in leisure activities have played a part in the decline, many of today’s keepers of allotment areas no longer view the activity as a part-time job but as a hobby.
E. The Office International du Coin de Terre et des Jardins Familiaux maintains that the benefits of allotment keeping can still translate into modern day society, such benefits including improvement of urban life due to additional green areas in highly populated regions, the educational experience for families and children to be involved in the practice of cultivating food for the table, improvement of communication and integration within the community and as a reliever of work-related stress. Time will tell whether there will be a resurgence of allotment keeping in the UK, an apt pastime perhaps for a society becoming increasingly concerned about environmental well-being and consumption of organic, wholesome food.