Although there are many different ways to communicate in English, it can be useful to know that there are only 9* different parts of speech from which all sentences, phrases or utterances are made.
*Some schools believe that there are only 8 parts of speech, with articles being part of the adjective group.
The different parts of speech are as follows:
Understanding which groups words are in can help you to break down sentences and improve your understanding and grammatical accuracy.
Below is a table showing the different parts of speech and an example.
|Part of speech||Common use||Example|
|Verb||to describe an action||He sat.|
|Noun||To describe a thing||He sat on the chair.|
|Adverb||To describe the verb||He slowly sat on the chair.|
|Adjective||To describe the noun||He slowly sat on the tall chair.|
|Pronoun||To talk about who||He slowly sat on the tall chair.|
|Preposition||To talk about where or when||He slowly sat on the tall chair.|
|Conjunction||Used to join ideas||He slowly sat on the tall chair but fell off.|
|Article||Used to give more information about the noun||He slowly sat on the tall chair but fell off.|
|Interjection||A short exclamation – not a full sentence||Ouch! He hit the floor.|
It is also useful to keep a vocabulary list and group words together that come from the same parts of speech.
adjectives – e.g. glamorous
You should try to also learn their antonyms and synonyms to build your vocabulary.
e.g. alluring, attractive (synonyms) – dowdy, plain (antonyms)
and think about their comparatives and superlatives e.g. – (adj) more glamorous (comparative) the most glamorous (superlative)
nouns – e.g. accommodation
(check spelling and think about articles etc) – uncountable, no ‘a’ or ‘an’
You should try to also learn their synonyms to build your vocabulary.
e.g. place of residence, dwelling, abode (synonyms)
verbs – e.g. drive
(and their past and participle forms);
prepositions – e.g. on
(with examples of their different uses),
e.g. on the sofa, but in an arm chair.
conjunctions – e.g. moreover
(with examples of use and punctuation)
Smoking is expensive; moreover, it is detrimental to health.